What is a high-pressure pump unit and how does it work?
A high-pressure pump unit is a type of pump unit designed to generate a high-pressure fluid flow. It is typically used for industrial applications such as jetting or hydrostatic testing, but also for many other high-pressure applications. The unit usually consists of a high-pressure plunger pump, a motor to drive the hp-pump and other components such as valves, gauges and hoses. The pump is the main component of the unit and is responsible for generating the high-pressure fluid flow. The pump draws liquid from a low-pressure source, such as a tank or municipal water supply, and then pressurises it using a piston, diaphragm or other mechanism.
The pressurised fluid is then delivered to the desired location through hoses or pipes. The pressure generated by a high-pressure pump unit can range from several hundred to several thousand bar, depending on the model and application. The unit may also contain safety devices, such as pressure relief valves, to prevent overpressure and damage to the system.
What are the main components of a high pressure pump unit and what are their functions?
High Pressure Pump:
It is the heart of the system and responsible for bringing the liquid to the desired level. There are different types of high-pressure pumps, e.g. plunger pumps, piston pumps or diaphragm pumps. What they all have in common is that they displace a liquid in some way. The pressure is then built up against a flow resistance or downstream consumers such as nozzles.
Electric motor or Diesel motor:
The motor drives the pump and is usually connected to the pump via a belt drive, direct coupling or clutch. Electric motors are widely used, mobile systems are often driven by motors, especially when electrical power is not available. KAMAT pumps have an internal gearbox that reduces the drive speed to the required pump speed. This eliminates the need for a belt drive or external gearbox.
It allows the operator to control the pump unit, e.g. start and stop the pump, adjust the pressure and monitor the system performance. The control panel may include switches, gauges and other indicators, as well as an emergency stop switch.
Hoses and fittings, pipes:
These components transport the water from the pump to its destination, e.g. to a nozzle, spray gun or other tool. The hoses and fittings must be strong and durable enough to withstand the high-pressure flow of liquid.
Pulsation damper at the outlet:
Since the plunger pump delivers a discontinuous flow into the discharge line, the flow is often harmonised by a pulsation damper to reduce negative effects on the wear of downstream components.Valves and pressure relief devices: These components regulate the flow of water and protect the system from overpressure. Pressure relief valves (safety valves), for example, open automatically to release excess pressure when the system reaches a dangerous level
A pump unit may require an enclosure to dampen ambient noise and control the internal temperature of the unit even in extremely hot or cold environments. Heating or cooling systems may be used to stabilise the temperature of the unit.
Tank or water source:
A high-pressure pump unit requires a liquid source from which it can draw. This can be a tank or reservoir, a municipal water supply or any other liquid source that meets the requirements of the unit.
Suction stabiliser: A device that stabilises the flow into the pump to minimise acceleration losses caused by the liquid source and prevent cavitation.
What are some of the most common applications of high-pressure pump units?
High pressure pump units are versatile and powerful tools that can be used in a wide range of applications where high-pressure fluid flow is required. Here are some examples:
Jetting: High-pressure water is an effective means of cleaning and removing dirt, grime and other contaminants from surfaces. High-pressure pumps are used for cleaning large surfaces such as buildings, bridges and ships, and for cleaning equipment and machinery.
Surface preparation: High-pressure water can be used very efficiently to remove paint and corrosion layers from metal surfaces in preparation for a new coating.
Hydrostatic testing: High pressure pumps are used for hydrostatic testing of pipelines, tanks and other equipment to ensure that they can withstand the high pressure and to find leaks or weak points in the system.
Waterjet cutting: Water under high pressure can be used as a cutting tool for materials such as metal, concrete and stone (hydrodemolition). High-pressure pumps are used in waterjet cutting machines to generate the water flow required for cutting.
Firefighting: High-pressure pumps are used in firefighting equipment such as fire engines and fire boats to deliver water at high pressure to the source of the fire so that firefighters can quickly extinguish the flames. Pumps are also used in sprinkler and water mist systems.
Oil and gas industry: High-pressure pump units are used in the oil and gas industry for various applications, such as well stimulation, hydraulic fracturing, oil production enhancement and production water reinjection.
Agriculture: High-pressure pump units are used in agriculture for irrigation and crop spraying, where water or pesticides need to be transported to the plants efficiently and effectively at high pressure.