Plunger pumps fall into the general category of oscillating displacement pumps, in which a displacement of liquids takes place via an oscillating movement of the pump components. A plunger pump consists of a cylinder and a piston, which moves up and down in the cylinder. The piston is also referred to as a plunger, which gives the plunger pump its name. One advantage of plunger pumps is that they can be used to pump not only water but also other liquids such as oils.
The pumping process can be divided into two phases: the suction phase and the delivery phase. The pumping of the liquid proceeds as follows:
- Suction phase: The plunger moves downwards and thus creates a negative pressure in the cylinder. This negative pressure opens the inlet valve and the liquid enters the cylinder.
- Delivery phase: The cylinder has filled with liquid. The plunger then moves upwards again, which in turn increases the pressure in the cylinder to the outside. The exhaust valves open and the liquid in the cylinder is directed into the pressure pipe.
- Oscillating movement: The suction and delivery phases repeat continuously. This creates a pulsating flow of liquid.
The valves in the plunger pump control the flow of liquid and prevent backflow. High-quality plunger pumps, such as those from KAMAT, allow precise regulation of the delivery pressure in the pump. This allows the flow rate to be adjusted to individual requirements.